UGC NET Philosophy Syllabus
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The NET JRF syllabus is divided in 10 units. Each units has sub- topics.
- Unit-1: Classical Indian: Epistemology and Metaphysics
- Unit-2 : Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics
- Unit -3: Indian Ethics
- Unit -4: Western Ethics
- Unit-5: Contemporary Indian Philosophy
- Unit-6: Recent Western Philosophy
- Unit- 7: Social and Political Philosophy: Indian
- Unit-8: Social and Political Philosophy: Western
- Unit- 9: Logic
- Unit- 10 : Applied Philosophy
UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus PDF Download – Click Here
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Subject : PHILOSOPHY
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Unit-1: Classical Indian: Epistemology and Metaphysics
Vedic and Upanişadic: şta – the cosmic order, the divine and the human realms; the centrality of the institution of yajña (sacrifice), theories of creation Ātman – Self ( and not – self ), Jāgrat, Svapna, Susupti and turiya, Brahman.
Cārvāka : Pratyakṣa as the only pramāna, critique of anumāna and sabda, Consciousness as epi-phenomenon.
Jainism : Concept of reality – sat, dravya, guņa, paryāya, Jiva, ajiva, anekāntavāda, syādvāda and nayavāda; theory of knowledge.
Buddhism : Four Noble Truths, AstangikaMārga, Distinction between Brahmiņic and Śraminic traditions. Pratityasamutpāda, kşanabhahgavāda, anātmavāda. Schools of Buddhism : Vaibhāşika, Sautrāntika, Yogacāra, Madhyamika and Tibetan Buddhism.
Nyāya : Pramā and apramā, Theories of pramāņa: pratyakşa, anumāna, upamana, śabda. Hetvabhāsa. Concept of God. Debate between Buddhism and Nyāya about Pramāņa-Vyavasthā and PramāņaSamplava. Anyathākhyati.
Vaiśeşika: Concept of padārtha and its kinds, Asatkāryavāda, kinds of Kāraṇa: samavāyi, asamavāyi, and nimittakārana, paramaņukaraņavāda.
Sāmkhya : Satkāryavāda, prakrti and its evolutes, arguments for the existence of praksti, nature of purusa, arguments for the existence and plurality of puruşa, relationship between puruşa and prakrti, atheism.
Yoga : Patañjali’s Theory of Pramāņa, concept of ċitta and ċitta – výtti, stages of ćitt-bhumi, the role of God in Yoga.
Purva – Mimāmsā: Pramāṇyavāda: Svatah-pramāṇyavāda and Paratah-pramāṇyavada, Śruti and its importance, classification of śruti-vākyas, vidhi, nişedha and arthavāda, dharma, bhāvanā, śabda-nityavāda, Jāti, śaktivada; Kumārila and Prabhākara Schools of Mimāmsa and their major points of difference, triputi – samvit, jñatatā, abhāva and anupalabdhi, anvitadbhidhanavāda, abhihitanvayavāda, Theories of error: Akhyāti, Viparitakhyāti, atheism.
Advaita : Brahman, relation between Brahman and Ātman, three grades of sattā, Adhyāsa, māya, Jiva, Vivartavāda, Anirvachniya-khyāti.
Viśiştādvaita : SagunaBrahmaṇ, refutation of māya, aprthaksiddhipariņāmavāda, Jiva, bhakti and prapatti, Brahma-Pariņāmavāda, Sat-khyāti.
Dvaita : Rejection of nirgunabrahman and māya, bheda and sāksi, bhakti.
Dvaitavaita: Concept of Jñānaswaroop, kinds of inanimate
Sudhadvaita: Concept of Avikrta-pariņāmavāda.
Unit-2 : Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics
Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, lonians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus,
The Sophists and Socrates
Plato and Aristotle:
Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul and God.
Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the productive, logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation, form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.
St. Augustine: Problem of Evil.
St. Anselm: Ontological argument.
St. Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.
Modern Western Philosophy:
Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs for the existence of God, interactionism.
Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’, Intellectual love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing.
Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the existence of God, principles of non-contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre-established harmony, problem of freedom.
Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance, distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades of knowledge.
Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esseestpercipi, the problem of solipcism; God and self.
Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non – being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.
Unit -3: Indian Ethics
- Concept of Purusārtha, Śreyas and Preyas
- Varņāshrama, Dharma, Sadhārana Dharma
- Rna and yajña, Concept of duty
- Karma-yoga, Sthitprajña, Svadharma, Lokasamgraha
- Apurva and Adrsta
- Sadhya-Sadhana, Itikartavyata
- Law of Karma: ethical implications
- Rta and Satya
- Astanga Yoga
- Jainism: Samvara-nirjarā, Tri-ratņa, Panch-vrata.
- Buddhism: Upāya-Kaushal, Brahma-vihāra: matri, karuņā, muditā, upeksha, bodhisattva
- Carvaka’s Hedonism
Unit -4: Western Ethics
- Concepts of Good, right, justice, duty, obligation, cardinal virtues, Eudaemonism, Intuition as explained in Teleological and Deontological Theories.
- Egoism, Altruism, Universalism
- Subjectivism, Cultural Relativism, Super-naturalism.
- Ethical realism and Intuitionism,
- Kant’s moral theory: Postulates of morality, Good-will, Categorical Imperative, Duty, Mean and ends, Maxims.
- Utilitarianism: principle of utility, problem of sanction and justification of morality, kinds of utilitarianism, Moral theories of Bentham, J. S. Mill, Sidgwick Theories of Punishment
- Ethical cognitivism and non-cognitivism: Emotivism, Prescriptivism, Descriptivism
Unit-5: Contemporary Indian Philosophy
Vivekananda: Practical Vedanta, Universal Religion, Religious Experience, Religious Rituals
Sri Aurobindo: Evolution, mind and supermind, Integral Yoga
Iqbal: Self, God, man and superman, Intellect and Intuition
Tagore: Religion of man, ideas on education, Concept of Nationalism
C. Bhattacharyya: Swaraj in ideas, Concept of Philosophy, subject as Freedom, the doctrine of Maya.
Radhakrishnan: Intellect and intuition, the Idealist view of life, concept of Universal Religion, Hindu view of life.
Krishnamurti: Conception of thought, Freedom from the known, analysis of self, Choiceless awareness
Gandhi: Truth, Non-violence, satyagraha, swaraj, critique of modern civilization.
Ambedkar: Annihilation of caste, philosophy of Hinduism, Neo-Buddhism
D.D. Upadhyaya: Integral Humanism, Advaita Vedanta, Purusartha
Narayana Guru: the spiritual freedom and social equality, one caste, one religion, one God.
JyotibaPhule: Critical understanding of Caste-system.
M.N.Roy: Radical Humanism, Materialism
Maulana Azad: Humanism
Unit-6: Recent Western Philosophy
Analytic and Continental Philosophy:
Frege: Sense and Reference
Logical Positivism: Verification theory of meaning, Elimination of metaphysics, concept of Philosophy
Moore: Distinction between Sense and Reference, Refutation of Idealism, Defense of commonsense, Proof of an External World.
Russell: Logical Atomism, Definite Descriptions, Refutation of Idealism
Wittgenstein: Language and Reality, Facts and objects, names and propositions, the picture theory, critique of private language, meaning and use, forms of life, notion of philosophy, Wittgensteinian Fideism, On Certainty.
Gilbert Ryle: Systematically misleading expressions, category mistake, concept of mind, critique of Cartesian dualism
J. Ayer: The Problem of Knowledge
W.V.o. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism
H.P. Grice and P.F. Strawson: In Defense of a dogma
Phenomenology and Existentialism:
Husserl: Phenomenological Method, Philosophy as a rigorous science, Intentionality, Phenomenological Reduction, Inter-subjectivity
Heidegger: The concept of Being (Dasein), Man as being in the world, critique of technological civilization
Kierkegaard: Subjectivity as Truth, Leap of faith
Sartre: Concept of Freedom, Bad-faith, Humanism
Morleau-Ponty: Perception, Embodied Consciousness
William James: Pragmatic Theories of Meaning and Truth, Varieties of Religious experience
John Dewey: Concept of Truth, Common-faith, education
Nietzsche: Critique of Enlightenment, Will to Power, Genealogy of Moral
Richard Rorty: Critique of representationalism, Against Epistemological method, Edifying Philosophy
Immanuel Levinas: Ethics as a first philosophy, Philosophy of ‘other’
Unit- 7: Social and Political Philosophy: Indian
Mahabharata: Danda-niti, foundations, dharma, Law and Governance, Narada’s Questions to King Yudhisthir
Kautilya: Sovereignty, Seven Pillars of State-craft, State, Society, Social-life, State administration, State economy, law and justice, internal security, welfare and external affairs
Kamandaki: Social order and State elements
Constitutional Morality, Secularism and Fundamental Rights
Constitutionalism, Total revolution, terrorism, Swadeshi, Satyagrah, Sarvodaya, Social
Democracy, State Socialism, Affirmative Action, Social Justice
Social Institutions: Family, Marriage, property, education and religion Colonialism
Unit-8: Social and Political Philosophy: Western
Plato: Ideal State and Justice
Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau: Social Contract Theory
Isaiah Berlin: Conceptions of Liberty
Bernard Williams: Idea of Equality
Liberalism: Rawls; Distributive justice, Nozick; Justice as Entitlement, Dworkin; Justice as equality; Amartya Sen: Global Justice, Freedom and Capability.
Marxism: Dialectical Materialism, Alienation, Critique of Capitalism, Doctrine of Class Struggle and Classless Society.
Communitarianism: Communitarian critique of liberal self, Universalism Vs. Particularism, Theory of Charles Taylor, MacIntyre, Michael Sandel
Multiculturalism: Charles Taylor; Politics of recognition, Will Kymlicka; conception of Minority Rights
Feminism: Basic Concepts: Patriarchy, misogyny, Gender, Theories of Feminism; Liberal, Socialist, radical and eco-feminism
Unit- 9: Logic
Truth and Validity
Denotation and Connotation
Nature of Propositions
Laws of thought
Classification of Propositions
Square of Opposition
Truth-Functions and Propositional Logic
Quantification and Rules of Quantification
Symbolic Logic: Use of symbols
Decision Procedures: Truth Table, Using Truth- Tables for testing the validity of arguments
Venn Diagram, informal and formal Fallacies
Proving Validity, Argument and Argument-form
Axiomatic System, Consistency, Completeness
Differences between Deductive and Inductive Logic
Unit- 10 : Applied Philosophy
What is applied Philosophy?
Philosophy of Technology; technology, dominance, power and social inequalities Democratization of Technology
Public evaluation of science and technology
Ethical Implication of information technology, bio-technology, non-technology
Environmental Ethics: Nature as means or end, Aldo-Leopold; land-ethics, Arne Naess: Deep Ecology, Peter Singer; Animal Rights
Medical-Ethics: Surrogacy, Doctor-patient relationship, abortion, euthanasia, female-infanticide
Professional Ethics: Corporate Governance and ethical responsibility
Media Ethics: ethical issues in Privacy, cyber space, pornography, representation and differences-marginalization
Legal Ethics: law and morality, Legal Obligation, Authority and validity of Law
Philosophical Counseling: Managing everyday problems
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